The cynical phrases "Vote early -- and often" and "Vote early -- and vote often" are variously attributed to three different Chicagoans:
- Al Capone, the famous gangster;
- Richard J. Daley, mayor from 1955 to 1976; and
- William Hale Thompson, mayor from 1915-1923 and 1931-1935.
All three were notorious for their corruption and their manipulation of the democratic process. It is most likely that Thompson invented the phrase, and Capone and Daley later repeated it.