In the UK this just refers to an garment you wear over your shirt for warmth. It doesn't have buttons, and it pulled over your head.
In the US this has a completely different meaning. It is a type of girl's dress, a top, with attached shorts basically. (Google will be happy to show you images.) It has a kind of "little girl" sense to it kind of like pinafore, however, for sure adult women wear them too.
In the UK this is the same as a jumper, a garment you wear over your shirt, with no buttons, and is pulled over your head.
In the US this is a similar item, however, a cardigan with buttons can also be called a sweater in the US.
Again is a garment you wear over your shirt, pulled over your head. The meaning is the same in the US and UK, but it is a pretty uncommon word in the US.
So in the UK it all means pretty much the same, however there are considerable semantic variations in the US.